Category: Research

Research

Ischemia and No Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease

Determine the prevalence and correlates of microvascular and vasospastic angina in patients with symptoms and signs of ischemia but no obstructive coronary artery disease (INOCA).

Three hundred ninety-one patients with angina were enrolled at 2 regional centers over 12 months from November 2016 (NCT03193294). INOCA subjects (n=185; 47%) had more limiting dyspnea (New York Heart Association classification III/IV 54% versus 37%; odds ratio [OR], 2.0 [1.3–3.0]; P=0.001) and were more likely to be female (68% INOCA versus 38% in coronary artery disease; OR, 1.9 [1.5 to 2.5]; P<0.001) but with lower cardiovascular risk scores (ASSIGN score median 20% versus 24%; P=0.003).

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Research

Diagnosis of patients with angina and non-obstructive coronary disease in...

Around 40% of all patients undergoing angiography are found to have normal coronary arteries or non-obstructive coronary artery disease (NOCAD). Despite the high prevalence, this is a group who rarely receive a definitive diagnosis, are frequently labelled and managed inappropriately and by and large, continue to remain symptomatic.

Half of this group will have coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD), associated with a higher rate of major adverse cardiovascular events; identifying CMD represents a therapeutic target of unmet need. As the pressure wire has revolutionised our ability to interrogate epicardial coronary disease during the time of angiography, measuring flow can similarly classify NOCAD during a single procedure.

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Research

Angina: contemporary diagnosis and management

Around one half of angina patients have no obstructive coronary disease; many of these patients have microvascular and/or vasospastic angina. Tests of coronary artery function empower clinicians to make a correct diagnosis (rule-in/rule-out), complementing coronary angiography. Physician and patient education, lifestyle, medications and revascularisation are key aspects of management.

Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) remains the leading global cause of death and lost life years in adults, notably in younger (<55 years) women. Angina pectoris (derived from the Latin verb ‘angere’ to strangle) is chest discomfort of cardiac origin. It is a common clinical manifestation of IHD with an estimated prevalence of 3%–4% in UK adults. There are over 250 000 invasive coronary angiograms performed each year with over 20 000 new cases of angina.

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Research

Assessment of Vascular Dysfunction in Patients Without Obstructive Coronary Artery...

Ischemic heart disease secondary to coronary vascular dysfunction causes angina and impairs quality of life and prognosis. About one-half of patients with symptoms and signs of ischemia turn out not to have obstructive coronary artery disease, and coronary vascular dysfunction may be relevant.

Adjunctive tests of coronary vasomotion include guidewire-based techniques with adenosine and reactivity testing, typically by intracoronary infusion of acetylcholine. The CorMicA (Coronary Microvascular Angina) trial provided evidence that routine management guided by an interventional diagnostic procedure and stratified therapy improves angina and quality of life in patients with angina but no obstructive coronary artery disease.

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Research

Prognostic Links Between OCT-Delineated Coronary Morphologies and Coronary Functional Abnormalities...

Whether there are prognostic links between coronary morphologies and coronary functional abnormalities was examined in ischemia and nonobstructive coronary artery disease (INOCA) patients.

Although INOCA has attracted much attention, little is known about the prognostic impact of coronary morphologies in this disorder.

A total of 329 consecutive INOCA patients were enrolled and underwent spasm provocation testing combined with lactate sampling for diagnosis of epicardial and microvascular spasm (MVS).

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Research

International standardization of diagnostic criteria for vasospastic angina

Standardization of diagnostic criteria for ischemic symptoms due to coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) is needed for further investigation of patients presenting with anginal chest pain consistent with “microvascular angina” (MVA).

At the annual Coronary Vasomotion Disorders International Study Group (COVADIS) Summits held in August 2014 and 2015, the following criteria were agreed upon for the investigative diagnosis of microvascular angina…

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Research

International standardization of diagnostic criteria for microvascular angina

Standardization of diagnostic criteria for ischemic symptoms due to coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) is needed for further investigation of patients presenting with anginal chest pain consistent with “microvascular angina” (MVA).

At the annual Coronary Vasomotion Disorders International Study Group (COVADIS) Summits held in August 2014 and 2015, the following criteria were agreed upon for the investigative diagnosis of microvascular angina…

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Research

Contemporary Diagnosis and Management of Patients With Myocardial Infarction in...

Myocardial infarction in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease is found in ≈5% to 6% of all patients with acute infarction who are referred for coronary angiography. There are a variety of causes that can result in this clinical condition.

As such, it is important that patients are appropriately diagnosed and an evaluation to uncover the correct cause is performed so that, when possible, specific therapies to treat the underlying cause can be prescribed.

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Research

The Who, What, Why, When, How and Where of Vasospastic...

Ischemic heart disease involves both “structural” and/or “functional” disorders of the coronary circulation. Structural atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) is well recognized, with established diagnostic and treatment strategies. In contrast, “functional CAD” has received limited attention and is seldom actively pursued in the investigation of ischemic heart disease.

Vasospastic angina encompasses “functional CAD” attributable to coronary artery spasm and this “state of the art” consensus statement reviews contemporary aspects of this disorder.

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Research

Systemic microvascular dysfunction in microvascular and vasospastic angina

Coronary microvascular dysfunction and/or vasospasm are potential causes of ischaemia in patients with no obstructive coronary artery disease (INOCA). We tested the hypothesis that these patients also have functional abnormalities in peripheral small arteries.

Patients were prospectively enrolled and categorised as having microvascular angina (MVA), vasospastic angina (VSA) or normal control based on invasive coronary artery function tests incorporating probes of endothelial and endothelial-independent function (acetylcholine and adenosine).

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Around The World

Real Patient Stories

Arthur’s story

My name is Arthur. I am a Scot but have lived in London for nearly forty years.

In 2014, I had my first heart attack. In the following six years, I went to A&E at least twice a year. Every time, I was sent home and was told it was reflux.

My own doctor in about 2015/16 put me on half an angina pill. When I was in hospital, I was told by the cardiology doctors that I did not need it as I never had angina at all.

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Barbara’s story

I am a 62-year-old retired physician. My story began at age 47.

I was a very busy practicing OB/Gyn physician who was otherwise healthy.

I was on call at the hospital, and it was turning out to be one of the busiest days I had ever experienced as a physician. I was in a medical group that took call for 24 hours straight, most of the time working the entire 24 hours.

Halfway through that 24-hour call, I was in the operating room doing a C/Section on a patient. Halfway through the surgery I began to feel crushing chest pain.

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Charlotte’s story

While at work in September 2014, I lost vision of my left eye and had terrible feeling of “heat” all over the left side of my body.

The ER ophthalmologist directed me to cardiology for a vascular problem.

A week later, I could not walk 100 meters (325 feet) without crushing chest pain and shortness of breath.

I was no longer functional. Making my bed was all I could do in a whole day. I was no longer an active 54-year-old.

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