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Precision medicine versus standard of care for patients with myocardial...

Myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) represents about 6-8% of patients presenting with myocardial infarction (MI), and it is associated with a significant risk of mortality, rehospitalisation, and angina burden, with high associated socioeconomic costs.

It is important to note that multiple mechanisms may be responsible for MINOCA. However, to date, there are few prospective clinical trials on MINOCA and the treatment of these patients is still not defined, most likely because of the multiple underlying pathogenic mechanisms.

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Research

Coronary Slow Flow Is Not Diagnostic of Microvascular Dysfunction in...

Guidelines recommend that coronary slow flow phenomenon (CSFP), defined as corrected thrombolysis in myocardial infarction frame count (CTFC) >27, can diagnose coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) in patients with angina and nonobstructed coronary arteries.

CSFP has also historically been regarded as a sign of coronary endothelial dysfunction (CED). We sought to validate the utility of CTFC, as a binary classifier of CSFP and as a continuous variable, to diagnose CMD and CED.

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Research

Prognostic association of plasma NT-proBNP levels in patients with microvascular...

The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic association of plasma levels of N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) with clinical outcomes of patients with microvascular angina (MVA).

In this international prospective cohort study of MVA by the Coronary Vasomotor Disorders International Study (COVADIS) group, we examined the association between plasma NT-proBNP levels and the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), including cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, and hospitalization due to heart failure or unstable angina.

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Research

Air Pollution and Coronary Vasomotor Disorders in Patients With Myocardial...

Coronary vasomotor abnormalities are important causes of myocardial ischemia in patients with nonobstructive coronary artery disease (NOCAD). However, the role of air pollution in determining coronary vasomotor disorders has never been investigated.

We aimed to evaluate the association between long-term exposure to particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) and 10 (PM10), and coronary vasomotor disorders in NOCAD patients.

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Research

Vasospastic Angina: A Contemporary Review of its Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and...

Nearly 40% of patients presenting to the catheter laboratory with angina have non-obstructed coronary arteries (ANOCA), an umbrella term that encompasses distinct pathophysiological entities, such as coronary artery spasm.

Coronary artery spasm leads to sudden reversible coronary flow attenuation, which clinically manifests as vasospastic angina (VSA). VSA is associated with poor quality of life and an increased risk of major adverse cardiac events. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are incompletely understood, which has resulted in limited therapeutic options for patients afflicted with this condition. The past decade has seen a surge in new research being conducted in the field of ANOCA and VSA.

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Research

Features of atherosclerosis in patients with angina and no obstructive...

Background: An association between atherosclerosis and coronary vasospasm has previously been suggested. However, to date, no conclusive data on the whole spectrum of these disorders have been published.

Aims: This study aimed to define specific morphological features of atherosclerosis in patients with angina and no obstructive coronary artery disease (ANOCA) due to coronary vasospasm.

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Research

Beyond Structural Angiography: The Emergence of Functional Coronary Angiography*

The evaluation of stable chest pain suspected to be cardiac in nature has traditionally involved the use of a screening noninvasive investigation, with invasive selective coronary angiography being the benchmark investigation.

Moreover, if the noninvasive investigation implicates the presence of myocardial ischemia (ie, new ischemic electrocardiographic [ECG] changes, perfusion defect, or regional wall abnormality) and the invasive coronary angiogram shows no evidence of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), then the noninvasive investigation is considered a false positive and the patient receives a diagnosis of “noncardiac chest pain.”

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Research

Clinical Relevance of Ischemia with Nonobstructive Coronary Arteries According to...

In the absence of obstructive coronary stenoses, abnormality of noninvasive stress tests (NIT) in patients with chronic coronary syndromes may indicate myocardial ischemia of nonobstructive coronary arteries (INOCA). The differential prognosis of INOCA according to the presence of coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) and incremental prognostic value of CMD with intracoronary physiologic assessment on top of NIT information remains unknown.

In stable patients with nonobstructive coronary stenoses, a diagnosis of INOCA based only on abnormal NIT did not identify patients with higher risk of long‐term cardiovascular events. Incorporating intracoronary physiologic assessment to NIT information in patients with nonobstructive disease allowed identification of patient subgroups with up to 4‐fold difference in long‐term cardiovascular events.

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Around The World

Real Patient Stories

Lynn’s story

I had my first spasm when I was just a young child and continued for almost 50 years with no diagnosis. I always assumed everybody had flushing feelings throughout their body, and hot flashes accompanied by chest pain.

It wasn’t until I was walking my dogs with my sister, one day, and we were going up a steep incline and I couldn’t keep up. I asked her if she felt chest pains when she walked up hills. She looked at me like I was crazy and told me: No!

I then realized something might be wrong with me.

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Dima’s story

March 3rd, 2021 was the day that changed everything. At 55, I had a busy counselling practice and a few other projects on the go. The pandemic was causing anxiety for many of my clients and in my private life. I had a lot of stress of my own: there were safety issues in the building where I lived, and I was looking for a new apartment. Despite this, I thought I was handling it well. I was fairly healthy, I walked daily, ate well, meditated and didn’t smoke or drink.

I started to experience heavy fatigue towards the end of 2020 but told myself it was normal considering all that was going on in the world.

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MaryAnn’s story

When I was 39, with zero risk factors for heart disease, I had all the classic symptoms associated with a heart attack. My doctors put me on three blood thinners to dissolve a clot in a minor artery seen in an angiogram. The next day, while the original clot had dissolved, I had a clot in a larger artery. Baffled, the cardiologists put in a stent. As they backed the scope out of the artery, it spasmed in another location.

At that time, I had a 4-year-old, an 8-year-old, and a 12-year-old. My husband traveled extensively for work. I asked myself two questions: 1) How do I feel about dying at age 39? 2) If I don’t die, how do I live?

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