Nearly 40% of patients presenting to the catheter laboratory with angina have non-obstructed coronary arteries (ANOCA), an umbrella term that encompasses distinct pathophysiological entities, such as coronary artery spasm.
Coronary artery spasm leads to sudden reversible coronary flow attenuation, which clinically manifests as vasospastic angina (VSA). VSA is associated with poor quality of life and an increased risk of major adverse cardiac events. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are incompletely understood, which has resulted in limited therapeutic options for patients afflicted with this condition. The past decade has seen a surge in new research being conducted in the field of ANOCA and VSA.