ANOCA/INOCA/MINOCA: Open artery ischemia
Ischemic heart disease continues to represent a major health threat for death, disability, and poor quality of life as it also consumes enormous health-related resources. For over a century, the major clinical phenotype was taken to be obstructive atherosclerosis involving the larger coronary arteries (e.g., coronary artery disease [CAD]). However, evolving evidence now indicates that nonobstructive CAD is the predominant phenotype.
Patients within this phenotype have been termed to have angina with no obstructive CAD (ANOCA), ischemia with no obstructive CAD (INOCA), or myocardial infarction with no obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA). But as methods to assess cardiomyocyte injury evolve, these phenotypic distinctions have begun to merge, raising concern about their usefulness.