Definitions and Epidemiology of Coronary Functional Abnormalities
Coronary functional abnormalities are frequent causes of angina pectoris, particularly in patients with unobstructed coronary arteries. There is a spectrum of endotypes of functional coronary abnormalities with different mechanisms of pathology including enhanced vasoconstriction (i.e. coronary artery spasm) or impaired vasodilatation, such as impaired coronary flow reserve or increased microvascular resistance.
These vasomotor abnormalities can affect various compartments of the coronary circulation such as the epicardial conduit arteries and/or the coronary microcirculation. Unequivocal categorisation and nomenclature of the broad spectrum of disease endotypes is crucial both in clinical practice as well as in clinical trials.