Tag: angina

Research

Invasive coronary physiology in patients with angina and non-obstructive coronary...

Nearly half of all patients with angina have non-obstructive coronary artery disease (ANOCA); this is an umbrella term comprising heterogeneous vascular disorders, each with disparate pathophysiology and prognosis. Approximately two-thirds of patients with ANOCA have coronary microvascular disease (CMD). CMD can be secondary to architectural changes within the microcirculation or secondary to vasomotor dysfunction.

An inability of the coronary vasculature to augment blood flow in response to heightened myocardial demand is defined as an impaired coronary flow reserve (CFR), which can be measured non-invasively, using imaging, or invasively during cardiac catheterisation. Impaired CFR is associated with myocardial ischaemia and adverse cardiovascular outcomes.

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Research

Definitions and Epidemiology of Coronary Functional Abnormalities

Coronary functional abnormalities are frequent causes of angina pectoris, particularly in patients with unobstructed coronary arteries. There is a spectrum of endotypes of functional coronary abnormalities with different mechanisms of pathology including enhanced vasoconstriction (i.e. coronary artery spasm) or impaired vasodilatation, such as impaired coronary flow reserve or increased microvascular resistance.

These vasomotor abnormalities can affect various compartments of the coronary circulation such as the epicardial conduit arteries and/or the coronary microcirculation. Unequivocal categorisation and nomenclature of the broad spectrum of disease endotypes is crucial both in clinical practice as well as in clinical trials.

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Research

Small vessel disease

Small vessel disease is a condition in which the walls of the small arteries in the heart are damaged. The condition causes signs and symptoms of heart disease, such as chest pain (angina).

Small vessel disease is sometimes called coronary microvascular disease or small vessel heart disease. It’s often diagnosed after a doctor finds little or no narrowing in the main arteries of your heart, despite your having symptoms that suggest heart disease.

Small vessel disease is more common in women and in people who have diabetes or high blood pressure. The condition is treatable but can be difficult to detect.

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Research

Myocardial ischemia: From disease to syndrome

Although current guidelines on the management of stable coronary artery disease acknowledge that multiple mechanisms may precipitate myocardial ischemia, recommended diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic algorithms are still focused on obstructive epicardial atherosclerotic lesions, and little progress has been made in identifying management strategies for non-atherosclerotic causes of myocardial ischemia.

The purpose of this consensus paper is three-fold: 1) to marshal scientific evidence that obstructive atherosclerosis can co-exist with other mechanisms of ischemic heart disease (IHD); 2) to explore how the awareness of multiple precipitating mechanisms could impact on pre-test probability, provocative test results and treatment strategies; and 3) to stimulate a more comprehensive approach to chronic myocardial ischemic syndromes, consistent with the new understanding of this condition.

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Research

Diagnosis of patients with angina and non-obstructive coronary disease in...

Around 40% of all patients undergoing angiography are found to have normal coronary arteries or non-obstructive coronary artery disease (NOCAD). Despite the high prevalence, this is a group who rarely receive a definitive diagnosis, are frequently labelled and managed inappropriately and by and large, continue to remain symptomatic.

Half of this group will have coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD), associated with a higher rate of major adverse cardiovascular events; identifying CMD represents a therapeutic target of unmet need. As the pressure wire has revolutionised our ability to interrogate epicardial coronary disease during the time of angiography, measuring flow can similarly classify NOCAD during a single procedure.

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Research

Angina: contemporary diagnosis and management

Around one half of angina patients have no obstructive coronary disease; many of these patients have microvascular and/or vasospastic angina. Tests of coronary artery function empower clinicians to make a correct diagnosis (rule-in/rule-out), complementing coronary angiography. Physician and patient education, lifestyle, medications and revascularisation are key aspects of management.

Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) remains the leading global cause of death and lost life years in adults, notably in younger (<55 years) women. Angina pectoris (derived from the Latin verb ‘angere’ to strangle) is chest discomfort of cardiac origin. It is a common clinical manifestation of IHD with an estimated prevalence of 3%–4% in UK adults. There are over 250 000 invasive coronary angiograms performed each year with over 20 000 new cases of angina.

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Research

Assessment of Vascular Dysfunction in Patients Without Obstructive Coronary Artery...

Ischemic heart disease secondary to coronary vascular dysfunction causes angina and impairs quality of life and prognosis. About one-half of patients with symptoms and signs of ischemia turn out not to have obstructive coronary artery disease, and coronary vascular dysfunction may be relevant.

Adjunctive tests of coronary vasomotion include guidewire-based techniques with adenosine and reactivity testing, typically by intracoronary infusion of acetylcholine. The CorMicA (Coronary Microvascular Angina) trial provided evidence that routine management guided by an interventional diagnostic procedure and stratified therapy improves angina and quality of life in patients with angina but no obstructive coronary artery disease.

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Around The World

Real Patient Stories

Dima’s story

March 3rd, 2021 was the day that changed everything. At 55, I had a busy counselling practice and a few other projects on the go. The pandemic was causing anxiety for many of my clients and in my private life. I had a lot of stress of my own: there were safety issues in the building where I lived, and I was looking for a new apartment. Despite this, I thought I was handling it well. I was fairly healthy, I walked daily, ate well, meditated and didn’t smoke or drink.

I started to experience heavy fatigue towards the end of 2020 but told myself it was normal considering all that was going on in the world.

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MaryAnn’s story

When I was 39, with zero risk factors for heart disease, I had all the classic symptoms associated with a heart attack. My doctors put me on three blood thinners to dissolve a clot in a minor artery seen in an angiogram. The next day, while the original clot had dissolved, I had a clot in a larger artery. Baffled, the cardiologists put in a stent. As they backed the scope out of the artery, it spasmed in another location.

At that time, I had a 4-year-old, an 8-year-old, and a 12-year-old. My husband traveled extensively for work. I asked myself two questions: 1) How do I feel about dying at age 39? 2) If I don’t die, how do I live?

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Sandra’s story

My story began in January 2010, while sitting at a traffic light returning to the office. I was working as a home health physical therapist. I began having chest pain out of nowhere. I got to my office and my boss, an RN, asked me if I was OK. I told her about the chest pain. By then it was starting to progress down my left arm. She took my blood pressure, normally 98/68. It was 140/90. She called my husband and told him to meet me at the ER. I drove myself there. They ran the normal tests and diagnosed me with costochondritis. Pain meds made the symptoms go away. The pain came back six times in the next 6 months. I asked for a cardiologist referral, but was denied, due to my age (39), lack of family history, and being in shape.

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