Interplay Between Myocardial Bridging and Coronary Spasm in Patients With Myocardial Ischemia and Non‐Obstructive Coronary Arteries: Pathogenic and Prognostic Implications

Rocco A. Montone, Filippo Luca Gurgoglione, Marco Giuseppe Del Buono, Riccardo Rinaldi, Maria Chiara Meucci, Giulia Iannaccone, Giulia La Vecchia, Massimiliano Camilli, Domenico D’Amario, Antonio Maria Leone, Rocco Vergallo, Cristina Aurigemma, Antonino Buffon, Enrico Romagnoli, Francesco Burzotta, Carlo Trani, Filippo Crea, and Giampaolo Niccoli

Originally published: 14 Jul 2021 | | Journal of the American Heart Association. 2021;10:e020535



Myocardial bridging (MB) may represent a cause of myocardial ischemia in patients with non‐obstructive coronary artery disease (NOCAD). Herein, we assessed the interplay between MB and coronary vasomotor disorders, also evaluating their prognostic relevance in patients with myocardial infarction and non‐obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) or stable NOCAD.

Methods and Results

We prospectively enrolled patients with NOCAD undergoing intracoronary acetylcholine provocative test. The incidence of major adverse cardiac events, defined as the composite of cardiac death, non‐fatal myocardial infarction, and rehospitalization for unstable angina, was assessed at follow‐up. We also assessed angina status using Seattle Angina Questionnaires summary score. We enrolled 310 patients (mean age, 60.6±11.9; 136 [43.9%] men; 169 [54.5%] stable NOCAD and 141 [45.5%] MINOCA). MB was found in 53 (17.1%) patients. MB and a positive acetylcholine test coexisted more frequently in patients with MINOCA versus stable NOCAD. MB was an independent predictor of positive acetylcholine test and MINOCA. At follow‐up (median, 22 months; interquartile range, 13–32), patients with MB had a higher rate of major adverse cardiac events, mainly driven by a higher rate of hospitalization attributable to angina, and a lower Seattle Angina Questionnaires summary score (all P<0.001) compared with patients without MB. In particular, the group of patients with MB and a positive acetylcholine test had the worst prognosis.


Among patients with NOCAD, coronary spasm associated with MB may predict a worse clinical presentation with MINOCA and a higher rate of hospitalization attributable to angina at long‐term follow‐up with a low rate of hard events.


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Authors: Montone, Rocco A., Gurgoglione, Filippo Luca, Del Buono, Marco Giuseppe, Rinaldi, Riccardo, Meucci, Maria Chiara, Iannaccone, Giulia, La Vecchia, Giulia, Camilli, Massimiliano, D’Amario, Domenico, Leone, Antonio Maria, Vergallo, Rocco, Aurigemma, Cristina, Buffon, Antonino, Romagnoli, Enrico, Burzotta, Francesco, Trani, Carlo, Crea, Filippo, Niccoli, Giampaolo

Publication: July 20, 2021 Vol 10, Issue 14

Publisher: Journal of the American Heart Association

Date published: July 14th, 2021


Copyright © 2021, The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell

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